probe industries magazine philes vol. 1 issue 18 
                                   released september, ninety-eight
 
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        \    /    /  /   /                /     /  /      /    /
         \  /    /   \  /                /     /  /      /    /
          \/____/     \/________________/_____/ \/______/____/
 
 
 
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        | __ | |_  _| | \__/ | | __ |                     
        | |/_|  _||_  |      | | |/_|     |                |
        |__|   |____| |_|\/|_| |__|     --+----------------+---
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---+-----------           PROBE INDUSTRIES MAGAZINE PHILES
   |           |          ISSUE NUMBER 18 
            ---+---       RELEASED: 09/98                   |
               |                                            |
                  ----------+-------------------------------+----
                            |                               |
        |
--------+-----
        |  
              get new issues and news from us via
                      our phat website!!
 
                
 
              to join the PIMP mailing list, please email
              pimp@dope.org and put the word subscribe in the
              message body.
                                                         |
                                          ---------------+---
                                                         |


+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|     p  u  b  l  i  c  l  y      d  i  s  c  l  o  s  e  d     |
|    a     f     f     i     l     i     a     t     e     s    |
+----------------+------------------+---------------------------+
|  known as:     |    pimp domain   |         inpho             |
+----------------+------------------+---------------------------+
| fringe         |      chicago     |     fringe@dope.org       |
| subhuman       |      chicago     |    subhuman@dope.org      |
| stash          |      chicago     |      stash@dope.org       |
| goofy          |      chicago     |      goofy@promisc.org    |
| insane lineman |      chicago     |     lineman@dope.org      |
| silo           |      chicago     |      silo@dope.org        |
| jello biafra   |      chicago     |      jellob@dope.org      |
| smokee         |      chicago     |         pimpin'           |
| darkelf        |      chicago     |    darkelf@dope.org       |
| jerkey         |       texas      |     jerkey@dope.org       |
| special-k      |      germany     |        pbx@dope.org       |
| luthor         |       maine      |   east coast HQ, pimpin'  |
| -Q-            |     new york     |         pimpin'           |
| mastermind     |      florida     |         pimpin'           |
| jcgangster     |       ohio       |         pimpin'           |
+----------------+------------------+---------------------------+

 
preface:
 
    the following magazine is an electronic publication to help inform
    society on details they may overlook in life, computers and 
    telephony they may not understand, and to broaden anyone and 
    everyone's knowledge.  there is no blatently illegal information
    discussed here.  there is knowledge and understanding.. 
 
    knowledge is the power, the power belongs to the people, and the
    people are the knowledge.  everything is on a need to know basis 
    for us.  we all need the want to know.
 

+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
|         T  A  B  L  E     O  F     C  O  N  T  E  N  T  S          |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                    |
|  PHILE ONE - Documentation on Telecommunications Terms             |
|                                                                    |
|              T-Carrier system, ATM, and more explained!            |
|                                                                    |
|                                                                    |
|                                 by goofy@promisc.org               |
|                                                                    |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                    |
|  PHILE TWO - Frequency to Channel Conversion Equations             |
|              (and also Channel to Frequency Conversions as well)   |
|                                                                    |
|                                                                    |
|                                 by fringe@dope.org                 |
|                                                                    |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
 
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
 
   EDITOR'S NOTE
 
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

whoop.  if you are an avid fan of pimp.. then you have issues to deal
with. :) just kidding.  if you were any type of reader of pimp, whether
it be critical or just time consuming, you probably have noticed that
since our last issue.. there just has not been anything coming out.

nor have there been updates.. or any type of information relayed to
you, the reader, in any aspect.  i guess i'm partially to blame. we 
haven't exactly had many people submit decent articles.. nor anything
of substance that could truly prove useful to you, the reader.

goofy, long time friend of chicago h/p, asked me recently,.. what's
going on with pimp?  i basically just said it's dead.. and well, it
basically was.  a vast majority of the scene has become what everyone
predicted it would become.  lamers.  i hate the term.. personally i
don't like to stereotype.  and if i do it's usually idiots and 
non-idiots.. that's how i describe people.  however, in this case,
it just fits to say lamers.  in the chicagoland area alone, over the
past year.. there has been a lot of narcs.  kids who just think they
are taking the easy way out.  that won't work out for them however.

after a long indepth conversation that lasted approximately 47 seconds,
goofy decided to write an article for pimp..something to revive it.

as for me.. i have a hard time believing that there are enough people
out there that want to learn.  seriously.  look around.. talk to some
of the people you see on the irc.  talk to all the net kids.  there 
aren't many bbs kids to talk to anymore.  when i say kids, i'm not
talking in the context of people younger then 18.  i know thirty year
olds i call kids, because they are in that frame of mind.  i know
a 14 year old i wouldn't necessarily call a kid because he is filled
with much greater ambition then most hackers i know.  and he is
learning more everyday then i see a lot of people learn in a month.

overall.. i think my plea with the h/p society is to revive the boards.

fuck the net.. it's not secure as is.. never will be.  not that bbses
are much better.. but there is more control. much more.  and when 
run correctly, valuable information can get distributed properly;
without some kid posting it on #2600 ten minutes later.

the mag.. will probably stay around for a long time to come.. why?
because it serves a purpose.. and can still serve more of a purpose
in the future.. it's about knowing, not necessarily about manipulation.
if you know how to light a match, you don't have to start a fire. 

if anyone wants to write something of substance.. something that
has value.. something that can expand our minds, not just tell us how
to card plane tickets, please submit it.  or we're coming to your house.

i'm tired of bitching.  people need priorities and ethics.  if they never
get them, i hope they have a good time getting charged with various
felonies once they turn 18.  enjoy goofy's article.. i think it is
extremely well written (for this mag especially!).. peace -fringe.


#######################
 
  fini editorial note
 
#######################




+-------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                             |
|                         PHILE 1                             |
|                                                             |
|           Documentation on Telecommunications Terms         |
|                                                             |
|                   by goofy@promisc.org                      |
|                                                             |
|                                                             |
+-------------------------------------------------------------+
 
In the last few years, you've probably heard several terms used
across the Internet/Telco community. They've turned into buzz words and
are used in business, but some people have no idea what the fuck
they're talking about. Let me explain, some websites\porn sites
brag about the amount of bandwidth they have, "We have 2 DS3's, the
fiber version of a T3", which absoulutly is not true. Or you
may be talking to an ISP about their backbone, "yea, we have 2 T1's,
OC-3, ATM..blah blah", it helps to know what the fuck is really
being talked about, especially if your paying them, they should
know also(but some ISP's usually dont). This document
im making is to clear some facts about telecommunications standards
and stop all the bullshit mumbo jumbo kids throw around to sound
like they know whats up. So read on and be educated, hopfully.
 
The T-Carrier System:
 
In the 1960's, Bell was having problems with their old
cabling systems. Their older systems were rapidly becoming strained,
and they needed a more organized system for their interoffice
wiring(From Central Office to Central Office). The
T-Carrier system was developed to cope with amplifacation problems,
and the telco wanted to utilise their cabling and produce better
quality. The T-Carrier system allowed telco's to better utilise
the unused transmission capacity of their existing wire pair
facilities. The T-Carrier system set forth a set of standards
for communications, the transmission rate was set at
1,544,000 bits per second. In a "T1", 4 wires are used (2 pair).
2 wires are used for sending, and the other 2 are used for
receiving. This way it works as a "loop". The T-Carrier
system is catagorized along a certain way. The word "DS" is refered
to as Digital Signal. Therefore, when you hear T1, it means the
same thing as DS1 basically. Also, most DS3's use coaxial
cable, since it's more difficult to use 112 wires together.
The digital hierarchy for North America includes the following:
 
DS0 - A 64Kbps signal that makes up the basis for the DS1.
24 DS0 signals combined form a DS1 signal.
 
DS1 - The DS1 is a 1.544Mbps signal. Inside the DS1 are
24 DS0 signals.
 
DS1C - This is the equivalent to 2 DS1's, with extra bits
to make a signal stanards of 3.152Mbps.

DS2 - This is four DS1's multiplexed together with a rate of
6.312Mbps. There are 96 DS0's that cane be carried across a DS2.
 
DS3 - This signal is 44.736Mbps, which is the equivalent to
28 DS1's or 672 DS0's.
 
There are other DS series, DS4 and more, but they will
be explained in another document or something.
 
Simpler Version of whats above:
 
Designator   -  Capacity(Kbps) -        Equiv DS1 -     Equiv DS 0
DS0             64                                      1
DS1             1544                    1               24
DS1C            3152                    2               48
DS2             6312                    4               96
DS3             44,736                  28              672
DS34/NA         139,264                 84              2016
DS4             274,176                 168             4032
 
European Signalling Standards:
Designator   -  Capacity(bps) - Equiv DS1 -     Equiv DS 0
E1              2,048,000               1               32
E2              8,448,000               4               128
E3              34,368,000             16               512
E4              139,264,000            64              2048
 
These are the standards used in the United States and the
E-Carrier system is used in Europe. Most internet providers
have atleast a T1 going to their equipment, however, smaller ones
have a fractional T1. That is where one DS0 circuit or several DS0
circuits are combined together. A fractional T1 is anywhere between
56Kbps to .976Mbps.
 
Although the T-Carrier system is quite powerful, for national
backbones that require more data, there are larger options.
 
ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode
 
ATM uses 53-byte cells to send data across a circuit to another
ATM switch, where it disassembles the cells that contain data.
It generally uses larger circuits and is used in many
network provider backbones.
 
Common speeds for ATM:
DS3     44.736Mbps
STS-1   51.84Mbps
STS-3c  155.52Mbps
STS-12c 622.08Mbps
(STS - Synchronous Transport Signal)
 
OC - Optical Carrier (SONET) (Fiber)
SONET, which is the Synchronous Optical Network, is used also
in large network backbones.
 
SONET Levels:
OC-1    51.84Mbps
OC-3    155.52Mbps
OC-9    466.56Mbps
OC-12   622.08Mbps
OC-24   1.244Gbps
OC-36   1.866Gbps
OC-48   2.488Gbps
OC-96   4.976Gbps
OC-192  9.953Gbps
OC-255  13.92Gbps
 
 
ISP Common Setups:
Many ISP's will try to impress you with their network setups, they
often claim to have large amounts of bandwidth by confusing you
with terms, here are some examples:
 
"We have a T3(or DS3) backbone"
- A standard DS3 costs around $45,000 a month to operate,
  and installation costs are very expensive too. Very few
  ISP's have a clear-channel DS3. In most cases, the isp
  is usually getting approximently 3Mbps or 6Mbps or 9Mbps.
  Some network provides sell "Incremental DS3's", where
  it starts at 3Mbps, and if the ISP wants to have it jump
  up, they can call and have it go up to 6Mbps, or higher.
  This way the isp can act big, and still keep a low amount
  of bandwidth, but the end user will never notice unless
  the backbone is saturated on the ISP's side.
  If your ISP has a full DS3, bravo for them, they've
  obviously got enough cash to pay for it.
 
"We have 10Mbps to our backbone"
- This right off the bat means they're network is most likely
  colocated with their network provider. Many network providers
  offer 10Mbps Ethernet access, so the ISP hooks up usually
  a Cisco 2514 or larger, and connects their dialup terminal
  servers to this network or across a smaller circuit.
  10Mbps may sound better than ISP's that just have several
  T1's, but in reality it may suck. On Ethernet, depending
  on how the ISP has it setup, there may be numerous
  collisions on the network, causing the speed to drop.
  However, 10Mbps is definatly better than several T1's for
  the most part.
 
"We have a 100Mbps backbone"
- This can sound deceiving, afterall, 100Mbps beats out a DS3 eh?
  It's most likely the same setup above, where a Network provider
  gives access to it's ethernet to an ISP. This is usually
  a pretty decent setup, unless the ISP is putting the router\dialup
  terminal you connect to behind something slower than the 100Mbps
  network. Here its explained:
 
 
==================================[Network Provider 100Mbps Ethernet]======
       \
         \ -  Your internet provider's link
        [Cisco 2514\4000\7000 Series Router]
           |
           | - Your ISP's internal ethernet, 100Mbps or 10Mbps
           |    (Hopfully 100Mbps for your sake, or its a big waste)
           |
           |
           |--[UNIX Server] (lets hope the mailserver\nameserver is
           |                 on a good portion of the network).
           |--[web server or some junk]
           |
           |-[Terminal server] This is where you dial into, if the
                               terminal server is on the 100Mbps network
                               that is closest to the NSP's ethernet,
                               good deal, youll be getting the fastest
                               access that you possibly can.
 
 
Another, kinda shady network setup:
 
 
 
==================================[Network Provider 100Mbps Ethernet]======
       \
         \ -  Your internet provider's link
        [Cisco 2514\4000\7000 Series Router]
        |   |
        |   | - Your ISP's internal ethernet, 100Mbps or 10Mbps
        |   |    (Hopfully 100Mbps for your sake, or its a big waste)
        |   |
        |   |
        |   |--[UNIX Server] (lets hope the mailserver\nameserver is
        |   |                 on a good portion of the network).
        |   |--[web server or some junk]
        |
        |
        | - Serial T1 (or 2 T1's) link to another office or location
        |
        |
        |
    [Cisco router]
           |
           |- 10 or 100Mbps ethernet, hopfully its 100 :/
           |
           |-unix server, tech support computers, etc.
           |
           |-Terminal server
 
If this is how your isp's network is setup, it may really suck for you.
What is in this diagram is a bottleneck, all the bandwidth on the
final ethernet segment, with the termianl server, is all pushed
through that little tiny T1 (or 2 T1's).
That means if your isp has a 10Mps or 100Mbps ethernet, all
the data from the dialup users, web servers, etc are going to be
pushed through a 1.544Mbps link. This is kinda shitty, because
everything gets stuck here. And there isnt a thing you can do about it.
 
Frame Relay Summary:
Frame Relay is a type of encapulsation for connecting
2 or more sites together. Normal encapsulation is point-to-point,
but frame relay does alot more. If a company has multiple offices,
and wants all offices to be connected together, but may not be
able to afford a T1 to each office, frame relay is a great
option. Frame relay works by having 1 circuit go from one end,
into the frame relay "cloud". Another location can have
a circuit also going into the frame relay "cloud". The circuits
combine and act like 1 single line. This is much more inexpensive
compared with multiple sites purchasing circuits to each other.
 
Example of without frame relay between offices.
 
Office 1
   |
   | DS1 - Distance: 30Miles
   |
Office 2
   |
   | DS1 - Distance: 25Miles
   |
Office 3
 
This configuration would mean that each office would need
a DS1 to another office. Which would be quite expensive
for that distance.
 
Example with frame relay between offices.
 
Office 1\
         \
          *************
Office 2--*Frame Relay*
          ****Cloud****
Office 3--/
 
In this configuration the offices would only have to pay
for the circuits into the frame relay cloud, which can normally
be the nearest Central Office, and the telco does the rest of the
traffic from there. A much more efficent way.
 
----------------------------

  END PHILE 1

----------------------------


    +---------------------------------------------------------+
    |                                                         |
    |                        PHILE 2                          |
    |                                                         |
    |     What's the channel number for this frequency?       |
    |     What's the frequency for this channel number?       |
    |     What channel is the Recieve side of a call          |
    |     when all I have is the Transmit side channel?       |
    |                                                         |
    |  The following are simple Math equations to figure out  |
    |  present operating frequency information and to end the |
    |  never ending question people are always asking me.     |
    |                                                         |
    |                       - fringe -                        |
    |                                                         |
    +---------------------------------------------------------+


Analog Cellular Phones and CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) phones
share similar paths when it comes to frequency/channel usage.  The
following equations can help everyone from the small company cellular
field engineers to hobbyists who always want to know a little more.
 
If you have a Transmit(Tx) side channel number but want to find out
what the Receieve(Rx) side channel number is, (or vice versa) you will
want to convert the Tx side channel number to the frequency, and 
utilize the fact that the Rx Transmission is always 45 MHz lower than
the Tx Transmission, and use the equations below and some simple math
to figure it out.
  
For AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System [Analog]) Cellular Phones, 
there are an intended maximum 1023 channels.  However, channel 0 and
channels 800 through 990 are not assigned which leaves 832 valid
operating channels.


+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                 |
|         800 MHz Channel Number to Frequency Conversions         |
|                                                                 |
+------------+---------------+------------------------------------+
|            |               |    Equation                        |
| Direction: | For Channels: |          to find the               |
|            |               |                  Frequency         |
+------------+---------------+------------------------------------+
|            | CDMA: 1-777   |                                    |
|  Recieve   | ANALOG: 1-799 | (.03 * (channel#)) + 825 = freq    |
|            |       991-999 |                                    |
+------------+---------------+------------------------------------+
|            | CDMA:1013-1023|                                    |
|  Recieve   | ANALOG:       |(.03*(channel#)-1023)+825 = freq    |
|            |      1000-1023|                                    |
+------------+---------------+------------------------------------+
|            | CDMA: 1-777   |                                    |
|  Transmit  | ANALOG: 1-799 | (.03 * (channel#)) + 870 = freq    |
|            |       991-999 |                                    |
+------------+---------------+------------------------------------+
|            | CDMA:1013-1023|                                    |
|  Transmit  | ANALOG:       |(.03*(channel#)-1023)+870 = freq    |
|            |      1000-1023|                                    |
+------------+---------------+------------------------------------+




+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                 |
|         800 MHz Frequency to Channel Number Conversions         |
|                                                                 |
+------------+---------------+------------------------------------+
|            |               |    Equation                        |
| Direction: | For Channels: |          to find the               |
|            |               |               Channel Number       |
+------------+---------------+------------------------------------+
|            | CDMA: 1-777   |                                    |
|  Recieve   | ANALOG: 1-799 |      channel = (freq-825) / 3      |
|            |       991-999 |                                    |
+------------+---------------+------------------------------------+
|            | CDMA:1013-1023|                                    |
|  Recieve   | ANALOG:       | channel = ((freq-825) / 3 ) + 1023 |
|            |      1000-1023|                                    |
+------------+---------------+------------------------------------+
|            | CDMA: 1-777   |                                    |
|  Transmit  | ANALOG: 1-799 |      channel = (freq-870) / 3      |
|            |       991-999 |                                    |
+------------+---------------+------------------------------------+
|            | CDMA:1013-1023|                                    |
|  Transmit  | ANALOG:       |channel = ((freq-870) / 3 ) + 1023  |
|            |      1000-1023|                                    |
+------------+---------------+------------------------------------+
 
For those that were smart enough to realize, the second table is
just the same math from the first table.. reversed.  Pretty tricky 
isn't it?  No,.. not really.  This section is just some really good
utilizable info that too many people don't remember off hand.  Any
question or inquiries regarding this should be sent to fringe.

----------------------------

  END PHILE 2

----------------------------

*****************************************************

Where did the news go?  Is no news good news?

well.. with so many mergers and other idiocies going on..
by the time we release the issues,.. the news usually
becomes olds instead of news.  the only new occurences
for us include: fringe, subhuman, and silo hitting 
defcon, and a helluva road trip it was.  we met some 
decent peoples there.. some we knew.. some we didn't..
to do a review on defcon would be pointless, everyone
has done one.  the only thing i, fringe, disliked was
peter shipley (with his tag-along lawyer) playing 
"let's zap the drunk people" .. needless to say this
has caused a lot of angst (a word he should know, being
the extreme goth industrialist with fake fangs and
super twend33 tattoo'ed across his forehead). 

otherwise defcon was fun.  it was a vacation much needed.

in other news, insane lineman is free.  we haven't 
discussed his situation in this mag nor publicly because
it is HIS situation, not ours, nor yours.  for those
that know him, he can once roam about the land and
be social.  believe it or not.. lineman got a worse rap
then kevin mitnick (in my opinion) because it was a
completely bunk charge thrown up on him.

all i can say is, we need to have a party.

*****************************************************

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
  _  _______ ______   ___   ___   ____ _      
       /___/  /___/  /  /  /__)  /_           
  _ __/     _/   \ _/__/ _/__) _/____ _ _ _
                 /                           I N D U S T R I E S
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,/,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,  M A G A Z I N E
                                             P H I L E S    1 9 9 8




+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                                                     |
|   y0 p33ps!  please check out our dope web site!    |
|                                                     |
|                                                     |
|                                                     |
|  site has:                                          |
|  back issues in the archives                        |
|  new issues as soon as they come out                |
|  pimp member listing with email links and web links |
|  phat links to other sites of interest              |
|  pix of pimps and chicago, pimp whq                 |
|  mailing list for pimp inpho's                      |
|  etc.. etc.. good phun, hit the damn site already!  |
|                                                     |
|  thanx to stash for providing space for our site!   |
|                                                     |
+-----------------------------------------------------+
 
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
W                                                                    W
W  the following boards listed hold true to the scene and if you     W
W  are deep into h/p and the likes, i suggest you give them a call.  W
W  as you can see.. this list has shortened a lot.. the net killed   W
W  the bbs scene.. these boards have stayed true..                   W
W                                                                    W
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
 
 
Apocalypse 2ooo - H/P/Rave/Ska/Punk/home of the pimp zine!
pimp ownzed by subhuman, jello biafra, fringe, silo, the whole crew!
+1-847-831-0484 - *NO* ratio. 33.6kbps, 4.3 gigs of h/p online. 
for more info: dead link
               ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ the Apoc2k homepage
 
Moo 'n' Oink - H/P, *NO* ratio,  pimp ownzed by stash! 
+1-847-256-5928
 
The Centre' - H/P  pimp ownzed by luthor!
more than a gig online plus cd's.
+000-PRI-VATE
 
************************ END ISSUE 18 **************************


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